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28) and, like other English Jewries, it declined further in the later 13th century as a result of royal exactions. In 1272 six men, including the former or future bailiffs Richard of Bergholt, Henry Goodyear, and his brother Geoffrey, sold cloth contrary to the assize; Richard and three others including the bailiff Richard Pruet, sold wine.

Four of the 22 people assessed on goods worth over £4 in 1301 (excluding the heads of the religious houses and Robert Fitz Walter of Lexden) were assessed on wool or cloth, 2 were tanners, and 1 was a butcher.

As many as 36 wool- or cloth-workers, including 6 fullers and 3 dyers, were assessed, compared with 30 leather-workers, including 11 tanners, 12 shoemakers, and a glover. Nearly 1,100 sheep and lambs were recorded in 1301, a startling increase over the 305 recorded in 1296.

Worsted and blanket were recorded in 1300 and blanket was the Colchester cloth exported through Ipswich about that date. 35) Woad stolen in 1312 may have been to dye russet, or perhaps blue cloth like that stolen from a tailor in 1328. They produced a fairly coarse ware which was used only in north-east Essex.

In the late 13th century or the 14th, however, Colchester kilns produced elaborate louvres which have been found as far away as Chelmsford, Great Easton, and possibly Rickmansworth (Herts.). 39) Detailed subsidy assessments of 1272-3, 1296, and 1301, show the importance of the wool, cloth, and leather trades in Colchester.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. 991, which suggests that despite its port, probably amounting only to a beaching place for small boats, traders did not bring foreign coin to the town to be reminted. Ten Colchester men were amerced in 1198 for exporting grain to Flanders, and oats and other corn was bought at Colchester in 1206 for shipment to other parts of England.

What little foreign trade there was in 10th-century Essex seems to have been through Maldon, which had a more accessible port. 991, however, the Colchester mint was a busy one, indicating a growth of foreign trade in the town. £15 in 1066 to £80 in 1086, may reflect increasing prosperity as well as Norman extortion. 2) Growth in the 11th century seems to have been succeeded by relative decline in the earlier 12th, as the farm had been reduced to £40 by 1130. 3) Although the town retained four moneyers under William I and William II and probably under Henry I and Stephen, the number was reduced to one . Four Colchester men were amerced in 1195 for selling wine contrary to the assize. 7) Most goods were probably carried by ship from Colchester's port at the Hythe across the North Sea or round the south and east coasts of England.Even though the river Colne had probably been straightened in the 11th or 12th century, improving access to the Hythe, large ships could reach the port only on spring tides.When Henry III requisitioned ships capable of carrying 16 or more horses for his expedition to Gascony in 1229, only two Colchester ships were suitable. 12) Colchester was important enough to attract Jewish settlement between 11. 13) Seven Colchester Jews paid a total of £41 13 in 1194, the ninth largest contribution, but one man, Isaac of Colchester, paid £25 of that sum. 14) Isaac lent money to several prominent townsmen, including Richard and Simon sons of Marcian, and resentment of his outstanding wealth may have contributed to the violence against the Jews which broke out in Colchester, as in other towns, in the early 1190s. 15) Richard son of Marcian and his son Hubert were still indebted to four Jews, three of them from Colchester, in 1238. 16) Colchester Jews, like others, had links with Jewish communities throughout England. 25) Although the details are questionable, such a grant by Henry II is not unlikely.In 1301 twelve men were assessed on boats or shares in boats. 41) Only 39 out of the 180 people assessed in 1296 (in an area excluding the outlying parishes) and only 148 out of the 388 assessed in the whole liberty in 1301 had no grain or livestock. Two Yarmouth merchants were involved in the settlement of a tenement in Colchester market place . One factor in the town's later success may have been the improvement of the navigation and the extension of the quays at the Hythe.Although some of the grain held by townsmen was for brewing or baking, and many of those who had only one cow or a few sheep may have grazed them on the half-year common lands to supplement their income from their trade or craft, many of the most prosperous inhabitants of the town derived their income wholly or mainly from land, much of it probably in the fields south-west, south-east, and north-east of the town. In 1339-40 and in 1341-2 the bailiffs leased to John Allen, John Peldon, Nicholas Chapman, and John Lucas, all merchants or ship owners, a total of 100 yd.Pages 26-38A History of the County of Essex: Volume 9, the Borough of Colchester. 6) but they were never among the major English fairs and do not seem to have attracted foreign merchants.

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